The Airbus A320 was preparing to take off at around 1pm on Thursday when a man told officials at an airline desk in the airport that there was a bomb on board, the public prosecutor told news agencies.
The Aeroflot plane was then recalled and its 115 passengers evacuated, before bomb disposal officers examined the plane for explosives.
Questioned by police at the scene, the man who made the claim later admitted that he made it up, saying it was just a joke, reported news agencies.
The public prosecutor's office has now opened criminal proceedings against him.
For reasons of security, investigations at the airport continued into Thursday evening.
It's the second time this year that the airport has been disrupted over a false bomb threat.
In July authorities launched a major security operation after a Frenchwoman called customs officials claiming a woman passenger would be carrying a bomb the following day.
The caller later admitted she made it up as an act of revenge on her husband and his mistress.