The man, who does not have HIV, denies charges of multiple grievous bodily harm and spreading human diseases, Swiss website 20 Minuten and newspaper Blick reported.
The prosecution alleges the unnamed man injected the 16 music students and patients with HIV-infected blood between 2001 and 2005.
The man is said to have acted under the pretence he was administering acupuncture. In other cases he is accused of doping his alleged victims and infecting them by unknown means.
The blood came from a pupil who told the teacher he was HIV-positive, the prosecution claims.
The lawyer for the self-declared healer told the media his client had never taken blood from a pupil.
Acupuncture was only administered once, he claimed, to his wife when she had back problems.
The defence lawyer could not say how the 16 music pupils and patients had become infected with the virus.
The case rests mainly on accounts given by the alleged victims, 20 Minuten said. The police could not find any infected blood or means of drawing blood at the man’s home.
The trial is expected to last three weeks.