The 17-time Grand Slam winner, who will move up to world number two in the rankings next week, claimed his second straight Masters title after also winning in Cincinnati in August.
Federer claimed his spot in the final when he overcame Novak Djokovic in a gripping semifinal on Saturday, ending the Serb's incredible winning streak in China and his hopes of clinching a third successive title.
A brilliant attacking display from the 17-times Grand Slam winner, who served with aggression and spent much of his time at the net, unsettled the world number one for a 6-4, 6-4 win.
Following the victory, Federer said getting back to number one, a position he last held two years ago, had not entered his thinking.
"I'm not even going to change my schedule because of it. I haven't thought about it, to be quite honest," said Federer.
"What does it need for world number one? I'm not quite sure. I need to look into that, how realistic it is or not," he said.
"I mean, it's in Novak's racquet — he dictates," Federer said.
"But nevertheless, I'm still going to be playing and hopefully playing well again."
Federer is expected to round off 2014 at Paris, Basel and the World Tour Finals in London, with a total of 3,000 points available — potentially enough to outstrip Djokovic.
The veteran Swiss has already done enough to displace his great rival Rafael Nadal, who has appendix problems, from second place when the new rankings go out next week.
"I'm going to anyway look at things when I come back to Switzerland in the next few days, discuss my schedule with the team, like I mentioned the other day," Federer said.
"Nothing is going to change really," he said.
"It all comes down now to what are my goals, what is my energy level like, and what are my priorities in terms of tournaments."
He said he was delighted to be winning again this season after a fallow 2013 with only one tournament victory, his worst return in 12 years, and a finish outside the top five.
Meanwhile, in related developments, fellow Swiss Stan Wawrinka has qualified for the ATP World Tour Finals, according to organizers Barclays.
It means the 29-year-old Australian Open champion will join the already-qualified trio of Federer, world number one Djokovic and French Open champion Nadal in the London event next month.
Wawrinka qualified despite an early exit in Shanghai earlier this week at the hands of finalist Simon.
It is the second time the Lausanne native has reached the season-ending finale.
"It was my dream and goal to qualify again this year after the great experience in 2013," he said.
"The atmosphere in London is one of a kind and it means a lot to me to be there together with the very best players of the world."
Japan's Kei Nishikori, US Open champion Marin Cilic, Czech Tomas Berdych and Milos Raonic of Canada currently occupy the remaining four qualification positions.