The incident occurred just before 8.30am after a tram on line 7 came to the Bahnhof Wollishofen stop, police said in a statement.
The victim, an Eritrean citizen, rushed out of the rear of the high-floor tram after the doors opened and fell to the pavement, according to the statement.
She was rushed to hospital for treatment of severe head injuries.
Police said she died in the hospital early on Wednesday evening.
The circumstances that led to the woman’s fall “are still unclear” and were being investigated by detectives, city police said.
Police said the tram was stationary when the incident occurred.
Investigators are seeking anyone who may have more information about what happened.
In particular, police are trying to track down a woman, 40 to 45 years old, who was near the victim before she fell.
Police described the woman as 163 to 170 centimetres tall, with long, dark hair, glasses and a dark coat.
Investigators want anyone who saw what happened to contact them on 04444117117.