The 34-year-old victim was evacuated from the building using a firetruck ladder and taken to Lausanne's university hospital, CHUV, for treatment of serious injuries to her stomach, police said in a statement.
Her husband was taken into custody.
“At around five in the morning I was woken by what sounded like a gunshot,” a witness told the Tribune de Genève.
“20 minutes later I saw police cars swooping in followed by an ambulance and a firetruck with a ladder.”
The public prosecutor has opened an investigation to establish the facts of the shooting.
A police spokesman told newspaper 20 Minutes: “The circumstances are not clear at the moment. The role of the man is not established, but he was the one to call emergency services.”
It's not the first time that police have been called to the apartment building on the Chemin de Bluets.
“During the night of July 18th to 19th I remember having seen several police cars in front of the building after a violent argument,” a local resident told the Tribune de Genève.
The children of the couple are being looked after by family.