The stamp celebrates the career of Marie Heim-Vögtlin (1845-1916), who became the first female gynaecologist in Europe.
In 1868, the native of Bözen in the canton of Aargau became the first woman to study medicine at the University of Zurich.
Her father, a pastor, intervened to ensure that she could be admitted, the university said in a new release on its website.
At the time, women were considered not strong enough to pursue medical studies.
The University of Zurich became the second university in Europe, after Paris, to admit women to medical school.
Heim-Vögtlin became the first gynaecologist in Europe in 1901 and became the co-founder of a school for nurses in Zurich.
Apart from her work as a medical doctor, she was active in promoting women's suffrage, the university said.
Women did not win the right to vote in Switzerland until 1971.
Heim-Vögtlin died of lung disease on November 7th 2016 during the First World War.
The new stamp in her honour will be available in post offices from March 3rd and at philatelic outlets from February 25th.