Eight-time champion Federer recovered from losing the opening set to defeat Japan's Kei Nishikori 4-6, 6-1, 6-4, 6-4 to book his place in the semifinals of a Grand Slam for the 45th time.
The 37-year-old is also the oldest man to make the last-four of a major since Jimmy Connors at the 1991 US Open.
Federer will now face Nadal at Wimbledon for the first time since their epic 2008 final.
“We have a lot of information on Rafa and so does he about us. I know people always hype it up in a big way,” said Federer.
“They did that again in Paris this year (when Nadal won their semifinal in straight sets). I'd love to play against him here at Wimbledon.
“But I go about it like every other match.”
Federer and Nadal have met 39 times in their careers but just three times at Wimbledon.
The Swiss star won their first two encounters in the 2006 and 2007 finals before Nadal famously triumphed in 2008 in a five-set epic which is widely regarded as the greatest Slam final ever played.
Federer said he was unaware that he had become the first player ever to win 100 matches at the same Slam.
“A fan told me congratulations on your hundredth win and I thought, oh yes, you're right!”