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ASSISTED SUICIDE

What you need to know about assisted suicide in Switzerland

Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland, despite being banned in many other countries. Here we take a look at the topic in more detail.

What you need to know about assisted suicide in Switzerland
Photo: SEBASTIAN DERUNGS / AFP

Is assisted suicide legal?

The short answer is yes, by omission.

While article 115 of the Swiss penal code prohibits assisted suicide for “self-serving reasons” and article 114 prohibits “causing the death” of a person for “commendable motives, and in particular out of compassion for the victim”, assisted suicide for non-selfish reasons is not specifically prohibited as long as certain conditions are met (see below).

Police inquiries can follow an assisted suicide and prosecutors may take action if they feel a crime has been committed. However, Swiss suicide assistance organisation Exit notes on its website that autopsies are rarely performed after assisted suicides.

What are the conditions for assisted suicide?

The Swiss supreme court has ruled the following: people must commit suicide by their own hand, for example, by taking medication themselves. A doctor cannot administer a lethal injection without being liable for criminal prosecution.

People must also be aware of actions they are undertaking and have given due consideration to their situation. In addition, they be consistently sure they wish to die, and, of course, not be under the influence of another person, or group of persons.

READ: Assisted suicides on the rise in Switzerland 

Who helps people to commit suicide in Switzerland?

The main associations are Exit, Dignitas, Ex International, and lifecircle.

Exit and Dignitas are the largest groups in Switzerland. Exit only provides assistance for citizens or long-term residents of Switzerland while Dignitas provides assisted suicide services to foreigners as well.

How does the paperwork process work?

The different associations have slightly different procedures but both Exit and Dignitas stress that it is not possible to simply walk in off the street, collect the necessary medication and commit suicide. Dignitas, for example, says the process can take three months or longer.

For both organisations, people wishing to use their services must be members. Dignitas specifies that for non-members, submission of a declaration of membership is a mandatory first step although it also notes there is no waiting period between become a member and applying for assisted suicide.

Beyond that, Dignitas and Exit outline processes that include making first contact (either directly or through a family member), counselling and personal interviews, submission of medical documents and an exploration of other treatment options including palliative care. A prescription for lethal medication will then be ordered from a doctor.

Dignitas also notes there is a lot of paperwork involved when foreigners choose assisted suicide in Switzerland and this can be time-consuming.

What is the medical procedure involved?

Most Swiss associations request that patients drink sodium pentobarbital, a sedative that in strong enough doses causes the heart muscle to stop beating.

Since the substance is alkaline and burns a bit when swallowed.

A professional prepares the needle, but it is up to the patient to open the valve that allows the short-acting barbiturate to mix with a saline solution and begin flowing into their vein.

A video is shot of the patient stating their name, date of birth and that they understand what they are about to do. The camera keeps rolling as they open the valve and the footage is used as evidence that they willingly took their own life.

It usually takes about 20 to 30 seconds for the patient to fall asleep.

How many people use assisted suicide services in Switzerland?

Figures from 2019 show an increase in assisted suicide numbers. 

Year on year figures show a slight increase in assisted suicide procedures, with over 1,450 people choosing to end their lives over the calendar year.

Exit Switzerland this week released its figures for 2019, with a total of 1,214 people took their own life with the help of the organisation, eight more than in 2018. 

When accompanied by the 256 individuals who went through the assisted suicide process with the other major Swiss assisted suicide organisation, Dignitas, a total of 1,470 people were put to death by the two organisations in 2019. 

All together, 1,428 people underwent the procedure in 2018 – an increase of three percent.

How much does assisted suicide cost?

Beyond the Dignitas membership costs (200 francs for a one-off joining fee, or 80 francs a year), people wishing to pursue assisted suicide must pay an upfront 4,000-franc fee, without any guarantee this suicide will go ahead.

A further 1,000 francs must be paid for medical consultations and the writing of the prescription for medication required.

Finally, if assisted suicide goes ahead, another 2,500 francs is charged to cover Dignitas costs, according to their website.

Dignitas can also organise funerals and oversee administrative affairs.

The total cost is therefore 7,500 francs without funeral and administrative services and 10,500 francs with those services – usually payable in advance.

But is should be noted Dignitas can waive some or all costs for people in financial difficulties.

Where does it take place?

Everything in Switzerland is subject to a significant cantonal variance. 

There were 862 deaths in German-speaking Switzerland in 2019 – representing a decrease of five percent from 2018 – while 352 people died in French-speaking Switzerland (a 17 percent increase). 

 

 
 

 

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For members

EUTHANASIA

Switzerland: What is the difference between assisted suicide and euthanasia?

While the terms often are used interchangeably, assisted suicide and euthanasia - and the laws that govern them - are quite different. Here’s what you need to know.

A person in a medical coat holds hands with another
Euthanasia and assisted suicide might be spoken of in the same breath, but they are quite different. Here's what you need to know. Photo by Matheus Ferrero on Unsplash

The terms assisted suicide, assisted dying and euthanasia are often used interchangeably – even by media and politicians covering the matter. 

There are however some key differences, both in terms of the legal situation and the practice itself. 

Assisted suicide is where a medical professional, usually a doctor but sometimes a pharmacist or other specialist, provides some form of medication to assist a patient as they commit suicide. 

EXPLAINED: How foreigners can access assisted suicide in Switzerland

Crucially, it is the patient who takes the final step, i.e. by taking a medication or by pressing a switch through which the medication is administered. 

Euthanasia on the other hand is where the medication which ends someone’s life is administered by a doctor or medical professional. 

Euthanasia is sometimes known as voluntary euthanasia, which references the fact that the patient volunteers for the process by providing consent. 

Other forms of medical intervention which lead to death – for instance turning off life support for someone who has been in a long-term coma – do not fit within the definition of voluntary euthanasia. 

The term ‘assisted dying’ is used as a grouping term to refer to both assisted suicide and euthanasia, although media sources – particularly in the United Kingdom – often use assisted dying when referring primarily to assisted suicide. 

What are the rules for assisted suicide and euthanasia in Switzerland? 

The law in Switzerland recognises the distinction between assisted suicide and euthanasia. 

Euthanasia is not permitted under law in Switzerland, while assisted suicide is allowed for both locals and foreigners. 

While article 115 of the Swiss penal code prohibits assisted suicide for “self-serving reasons” and article 114 prohibits “causing the death” of a person for “commendable motives, and in particular out of compassion for the victim”, assisted suicide for non-selfish reasons is not specifically prohibited as long as certain conditions are met. 

The Swiss supreme court has ruled the following: people must commit suicide by their own hand, for example, by taking medication themselves. A doctor cannot administer a lethal injection without being liable for criminal prosecution.

People must also be aware of actions they are undertaking and have given due consideration to their situation. In addition, they be consistently sure they wish to die, and, of course, not be under the influence of another person, or group of persons.

READ MORE: What you need to know about assisted suicide in Switzerland

Several other jurisdictions across Europe and the globe also make a legal distinction between the two, although euthanasia is legal in some countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Columbia. 

What is the medical procedure involved?

Most Swiss associations request that patients drink sodium pentobarbital, a sedative that in strong enough doses causes the heart muscle to stop beating.

Since the substance is alkaline, it burns a bit when swallowed.

A professional prepares the needle, but it is up to the patient to open the valve that allows the short-acting barbiturate to mix with a saline solution and begin flowing into their vein.

A video is shot of the patient stating their name, date of birth and that they understand what they are about to do. The camera keeps rolling as they open the valve and the footage is used as evidence that they willingly took their own life.

It usually takes about 20 to 30 seconds for the patient to fall asleep.

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