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HEALTH

Coronavirus: Switzerland sees economic resurgence despite fears of second wave

Switzerland's economy appears to be bouncing back from its coronavirus-induced funk but a surge in fresh infections could dramatically slow any recovery.

Coronavirus: Switzerland sees economic resurgence despite fears of second wave
Swiss President Simonetta Sommaruga (L) and Swiss Health Minister Alain Berset walk in front of the Swiss House of Parliament. Photo: FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

The Swiss Economic Institute (KOF)'s monthly economic barometer rose in September for the fourth consecutive time, jumping 3.6 points to 113.8 points — a 10-year-high, it said in a statement.

The key economic indicator, which had plummeted to unprecedented lows in April and May, has now surged to a level last seen in 2009-10, at the end of the global financial crisis.

“At present, the economy is taking a V-shaped course, so that a recovery of the Swiss economy can be expected for the time being,” KOF said.

The news came after Switzerland last month plunged into a recession after the economic affairs ministry (SECO) said the coronavirus pandemic had caused a “historic” slump in economic activity in the country.

But the central bank last week voiced slightly less pessimism for the full year outlook, now expecting GDP to shrink 5.0 percent in 2020, compared to its previous forecast of 6.0 percent.

KOF meanwhile said the wealthy Alpine nation had seen a clear recent upswing in its hotel and restaurant sectors, which had been devastated by the lockdowns and other measures implemented earlier this year to  rein in the virus.

It also highlighted positive trends in foreign demand, especially in terms of company orders, and said the manufacturing sector and private consumption were also picking up again.

Analysts with Capital Economics hailed the KOF findings, saying they suggested “the Swiss economy gathered momentum going into” the fourth quarter.

Second wave fears

KOF warned however that its rosy outlook could shift if Switzerland, like much of Europe, experiences a big surge in fresh coronavirus cases.

“A second wave of Covid-19 cases could lead to a sharp revision of this assessment,” it said.

To date, Switzerland has seen nearly 1,800 deaths and more than 53,000 cases of the novel coronavirus.

Swiss daily case numbers regularly topped the 1,000 mark in March but stringent measures pushed new daily infections into the low double-digits in June.

Since then however, infections have been steadily rising, with the country currently registering fresh daily case numbers in the hundreds, amid signs of a second wave of the epidemic in much of Europe.

The Capital Economics note remained upbeat however.

“While the second waves of virus cases in parts of Europe are a downside risk for Swiss exporters, the rebound in German manufacturing, and signs that the pick-up in virus cases in Switzerland has already peaked, bode well for the near term,” it said.

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CANNABIS

UPDATE: What are Switzerland’s rules for cannabis consumption?

Switzerland has a complicated set of rules for both medical and recreational cannabis consumption. Here's what you need to know.

UPDATE: What are Switzerland's rules for cannabis consumption?

Long prohibited and seen as a gateway drug with potentially dangerous impacts, countries across the globe have begun legalising cannabis in recent years. 

While the legalisation for medical use has been widespread, there have also been successful legalisation campaigns in several countries. 

The situation in Switzerland is also in flux and has been complicated by a range of recent changes.

Whether referred to as cannabis, marijuana or hemp, Switzerland’s Narcotics Act qualifies it as “a psychoactive substance”, with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being its most intoxicating ingredient.

The law specifies that “only THC is controlled under the Narcotics Act. Other active substances like cannabidiol (CBD) are not subject to the Narcotics Act as they do not have comparable psychoactive effects”.

Here’s what you need to know. 

Switzerland has legalised medical marijuana 

As of August 1st, the use of cannabis for medical purposes will be allowed in Switzerland

Patients who are medically prescribed the drug will no longer need to seek exceptional permission from the health ministry, as was the case prior to August 1st. 

Demand for cannabis-based treatments has risen sharply, with the health ministry issuing 3,000 exceptional authorisations in 2019.

The government “intends to facilitate access to cannabis for medical use for patients” and was therefore lifting the ban on its use for that purpose, it said in a statement.

The previous procedure involved “tedious administrative procedures”, said the ministry. “Sick people must be able to access these medicines without excessive bureaucracy.”

As of August 1st, “the decision as to whether a cannabis medicinal product is to be used therapeutically will be made by the doctor together with the patient” the government wrote

The sale and consumption of cannabis for non-medical purposes will remain prohibited.

READ MORE: Switzerland to lift ban on medical use cannabis

The new regulations could benefit thousands of people suffering from severe chronic pain, it added, including those with cancer and multiple sclerosis.

READ ALSO: Why Basel is about to become Switzerland’s marijuana capital

The law change will also mean that the cultivation, processing, manufacture and trade of cannabis for medical use will be subject to the Swissmedic regulatory authority, just as with other narcotics for medical use such as cocaine, methadone and morphine.

Legality of recreational cannabis is determined by the THC

THC of at least 1 percent is generally prohibited in Switzerland and use of products with this (or higher) content may be punishable by a 100-franc fine.

Of course, if someone is determined to smoke it, 100 francs may not be much a deterrent — but that’s a subject for another article.

“By contrast, possession of up to 10g of cannabis for personal use is not considered a criminal offence”, the law states, as long as it is not used by or sold to minors.

Italy's constitutional court has blocked the latest efforts to legalise cannabis.

Photo by Miguel MEDINA / AFP.

And, as with nearly everything else in decentralised Switzerland, “there are still considerable differences between cantons regarding implementation of the fixed penalty procedure”.

However, “cannabis flowers intended for smoking with a high proportion of cannabidiol (CBD) and less than 1 percent THC can be sold and purchased legally”, according to the legislation. 

That’s because, unlike the THC, cannabidiol “does not have a psychoactive effect”.

In other words, low-content THC and CBD will not give the “high” that recreational users seek.

When will Switzerland legalise recreational cannabis?

Currently, small amounts of recreational cannabis are tolerated in Switzerland.

“The decisive factor for classification as a banned drug is how much THC is contained in a cannabis product. If the THC content exceeds one per cent, the product is prohibited. Hashish is prohibited regardless of its THC content.”

As noted by the Swiss government, “If you are caught in possession of a small amount of cannabis (no more than 10 grams) for your own consumption, you will not be fined. In addition, if you supply (but do not sell) up to 10 grams to an adult, e.g. when sharing joints, you will not be fined.”

“If you are caught using cannabis, you may be given a fixed penalty fine of 100 francs.”

In June 2020, the National Council approved a plan to start cannabis trials for recreational use.

The experiments are to be carried out in Switzerland’s larger cities. Basel, Bern, Biel, Geneva and Zurich have all expressed interest in conducting the trials. 

The study seeks to find out how the market for cannabis works – and how to combat the black market. The social effects of legalisation will also be examined. 

At this point, no decisions have been made. However, Swiss authorities have set certain conditions in case recreational use is approved.

The National Council said if cannabis were to be legalised, it must be locally grown in Switzerland – and it must be organic. 

Health Minister Alain Berset noted that legalisation should benefit Swiss farmers even though “very few producers have experience in this area”.

READ MORE: Switzerland backs recreational cannabis trials – with one condition

Can you grow your own cannabis?

In truth, a number of people cultivate marijuana plants on their balconies or in their (secluded) gardens for their own personal use.

As it turns out, the law allows it, as long as it is a variety of the plant that does not have a narcotic effect — that is, the THC content must be less than 1 percent. 

By the same token, cannabis-based products with THC content of below 1 percent can be brought into Switzerland from abroad.

However, the import rules differ depending on the type of product  it is — flowers, seeds, extracts, oils, or other goods.

How much cannabis is consumed in Switzerland each year?

Precise numbers are hard to come by, but according to an article in Le Temps, which based its information on a medical study, about 100 tonnes are consumed in the country annually.

Cannabis remains the largest market in terms of volume: it represents 85 percent of drugs consumed in Switzerland, netting between 340, 000 and 500,000 francs per year.

READ MORE: Drugs and alcohol: Just how much do the Swiss consume?

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