Swiss citizenship For Members

How dual citizenship has become easier to obtain in Switzerland

Helena Bachmann
Helena Bachmann - [email protected]
How dual citizenship has become easier to obtain in Switzerland
Dual nationalities are allowed in Switzerland since 1992. Photo by AFP

With nearly a million dual nationals living in Switzerland, it is difficult to imagine that at one time maintaining two citizenships was illegal in this country.


Foreigners who wanted to become naturalised in Switzerland before 1992, had no choice but to give up their old passport.

Dual citizenship was not legal, which may explain why less than 8,000 foreigners a year were naturalised between 1987 and 1992.

According to a report by SRF public broadcaster, the winds of change started to blow in the early 1990s. The Berlin wall had fallen and Europe was in upheaval. The European Community, the predecessor of the European Union, planned to move closer together politically and economically. 

Against this background, Swiss business associations had pressured the Federal Council for more openness.

“They feared disadvantages with regard to a common European economic area if Switzerland continued to ban dual citizenship”, SRF said.

READ MORE: What we know about dual nationals living in Switzerland

But in 1992, Switzerland passed a new civil rights law. One of the changes was the recognition of dual citizenship.

As a result, the number of naturalisations rose rapidly. They doubled to more than 10,000 within a year and continued to go up in the following years: from almost 13,000 in 1993 to 37,000 a decade later, and over 42,000 in 2018.

Interestingly, even though Switzerland is often slow to change, the country was one of the pioneers in Europe in recognising dual citizenship, SRF’s report noted.


Germany, for example, has only accepted dual citizenship since 1999 and in principle only for citizens of other EU countries or Switzerland.

Austria still doesn’t allow dual nationality —apart from special cases. And anyone who wants to become a Liechtenstein citizen must also hand in their old passport.



READ MORE: Switzerland tops rankings for ability to attract most talented workers

Today, people aged 15 or over with dual citizenship represent 18 percent of Switzerland’s permanent resident population – 967,000 people in total. 

Most come from neighbouring countries: 24 percent from Italy, 12 percent from France, and 9 percent from Germany.

Where do most dual nationals live?

According to figures from the Federal Statistical Office, Geneva has the highest proportion — 46 percent — of residents who have another passport in addition to the Swiss one.

The rate exceeds 20 percent in Zurich, Basel, Ticino, Vaud and Neuchâtel.

The cantons with the lowest number of dual nationals (less than 10 percent) are Uri, Obwalden, Nidwalden and Appenzell Innerrhoden

How did they obtain second citizenship?

Among the population with a second passport, 65 percent acquired Swiss nationality by naturalisation, while 35 percent obtained it at birth.

Obtaining Swiss citizenship as a second nationality involves the same process as any regular naturalisation: foreigners must live in the country for at least 10 years, be integrated, obey the laws, respect national values, and be fluent in at least one national language.

People who have Swiss spouses, have lived in Switzerland at least five years, or are third-generation foreigners can usually benefit from a facilitated naturalisation, which is simpler and quicker than the regular process. 




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