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POLITICS

EXPLAINED: Why is Switzerland not part of the European Union?

In the world of multilateral pacts, Switzerland continues to eschew many international alliances. This is why.

EXPLAINED: Why is Switzerland not part of the European Union?
Proudly independent, Switzerland is not expected to join the EU. Photo by Fabrice Coffrini / AFP

To date, Switzerland is one of only a handful of western European nations that have not joined the European Union.

Bordered on all sides by member states (except for tiny Liechtenstein), Switzerland has often been referred to as a little rich island standing alone in the middle of Europe.

A phrase “Swiss paradox” has also been used to describe the country’s steadfast refusal to join the Union. That’s because Switzerland’s economy relies heavily on exports and its main trading partner is the EU.

Another paradox is that about one-quarter of Switzerland’s population are foreigners — most of them from the EU. 

Blame it on neutrality

“Switzerland  has a very strong sense of independence; joining the EU would impinge on its autonomy”, political scientist Daniel Warner, former deputy to the director of The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, told The Local in an interview.

READ MORE: EXPLAINED: Why is Switzerland always neutral?

In fact, the concept of sovereignty is so deeply entrenched in the Swiss psyche, that the country voted to join the United Nations only in 2002 — another obvious paradox, as Geneva is home to a number of UN organisations and agencies.

This doesn’t mean that attempts to join the EU haven’t been made.

In 1992, Swiss voters narrowly rejected (by 50.3 percent) the government-backed plan to join what was then the European Economic Area of 12 nations.

The main argument that swayed the voters was that the country’s unique grass-roots democracy would be undermined if political decisions affecting Switzerland would be made in Brussels rather than in Bern.

Nearly a decade later, in 2001, Swiss citizens voted on a popular initiative to open membership negotiations, but nearly 77 percent rejected the proposal.

Small concessions

Realising that some kind of relationship with the EU would be beneficial to the country’s trade-based economy, Switzerland gradually negotiated 120 bilateral agreements with Brussels.

These treaties include market access for Swiss exports, scientific research, student exchanges, police cooperation, as well as belonging to the Schengen Area, which provides for the free and unrestricted movement of people among member states.

Switzerland is also part of another non-EU member group — European Free Trade Association (EFTA) — which gives Switzerland and three other members (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) access to some trade and economic perks within the association and the EU.

Love-hate relationship

While the bilateral arrangement with the Union has been mutually beneficial, cracks appeared in May 2021, when Switzerland ended framework agreement negotiations with Brussels. These talks were aimed at rejigging five major pacts, and fine-tuning applicable Swiss and EU laws.

However, the Federal Council “concluded that there remain substantial differences between Switzerland and the EU on key aspects,” and ended the talks.

The two sides hit an impasse after the EU refused to budge on demands from Swiss president Guy Parmelin to exclude key issues relating to state aid, wage protections and freedom of movement from the pact.

“The Federal Council nevertheless considers it to be in the shared interest of Switzerland and the EU to safeguard their well-established cooperation and to systematically maintain the agreements already in force,” the government said.

“It therefore wishes to launch a political dialogue with the EU on continued cooperation”, he added.

READ MORE: EXPLAINED: Why did Switzerland call off EU talks and what are the consequences?

Is Switzerland likely to join the EU in the foreseeable future?

Not according to Warner.

“There is only a limited desire for membership”, he explained, mainly due to very strong anti-EU sentiments in the central part of Switzerland — primarily in rural areas — where most  supporters of the right-wing Swiss People’s Party (SVP) live.

The SVP has staunchly opposed any moves to join the EU.

“Switzerland’s exceptional success in terms of prosperity, peace and social balance can be explained only by the pillars of this state, which are called direct democracy, federalism and armed neutrality. All of this would be threatened by the EU membership agreement. This contract would allow the EU to impose its rules in the areas of free movement of people, agricultural policy, industrial standards, energy supply and even north-south transit routes”, the party claims.

“This mentality is still prevalent”, Warner said.

So in terms of Switzerland joining the EU, “I don’t see it happening”, he added.

Member comments

  1. Britain looks at Switerland as an example for not being in the EU and like Switzerland we see London as a banking hub for the world’s rich, being part of the EU would mean losing a bit sovereignty when it comes to dealing with these bankers, for this reason both Switerland and Britain feel better outside the internal market.

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ENERGY

Air-con, ties and lights: How Europe plans to save energy and get through winter without blackouts

In the face of possible energy shortages due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, countries around Europe are taking action to cut their energy use and ensure that the lights remain on this winter. Here's a look at some of the rules and recommendations that governments are introducing.

Air-con, ties and lights: How Europe plans to save energy and get through winter without blackouts

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and ensuing sanctions has seen energy prices soar, while the Russian leader is also threatening to cut off gas supplies to the west in retaliation for the sanctions.

All this means that countries around Europe face a difficult winter and the prospect of energy shortages – so many are already taking action to stockpile gas and cut energy usage.

Here’s a roundup of what actions are being taken. 

Germany

Heavily dependant on Russian gas, Germany is already feeling the effects of the energy squeeze, with many households and businesses turning down the thermostat or dimming the lights as gas storage facilities are being filled at a slower pace.

RulesEarly in July, Germany’s lower house of parliament or Bundestag passed a plan to turn off the hot water in its offices and keep the air temperature no higher than 20C in the winter. This limit is merely recommended for households.

However homeowners will not be allowed to heat private pools with gas “this winter”, according to government plans, while a regulation requiring minimum temperatures in rented homes is expected to be suspended “so that tenants who want to save energy and turn down the heating are allowed to do so”.

As well as national rules, many German cities have also adopted their own energy-savings plans.

The Bavarian city of Augsburg, for example, has turned off its fountains, dimmed the facades of public buildings at night and is debating switching off some under-used traffic lights – and a housing cooperative in Dresden made national headlines when it announced it would limit hot water to certain times of day.

With certain exceptions, public buildings in Berlin will not have heating from April to the end of September each year, with room temperatures limited to a maximum of 20C for the rest of the year. In areas such as warehouses, technical rooms, corridors, the maximum will range from 10 to 15C.

Private enterprise has been getting in on the act too – Vonovia, Germany’s largest property group, plans to limit the temperature in its 350,000 homes to a maximum of 17C at night.

The head of consumer chemicals group Henkel has said that work-from-home practices may be reintroduced, while chemicals giant BASF has raised the possibility of putting its employees on furlough.

Recommendations – Economy Minister Robert Habeck has made headlines for extolling the virtues of shorter, colder showers.

France

France has an ambitious plan to cut its energy usage by 10 percent within two years and a government plan for sobriété énergétique (energy sobriety) is expected by September.

In the meantime, some rules have already been put in place while there are also some official recommendations. The general principle is that changes will be obligatory for government buildings and businesses, but voluntary for private households. 

Rules – In 2013, a law obliging businesses to switch off outside lights by 1am came into force. That deadline may be brought forward and towns and villages may have to switch off streetlights earlier – some areas have already taken this decision.

Shops that have air conditioning may not leave their doors open, so that less energy is lost.

Limits have been suggested for heating and air conditioning – keep heating to a maximum of 19C and air con to a minimum of 26C at the height of summer. The Prime Minister says she ‘expects’ government buildings to show an example and adhere to these, but they are voluntary for households.

Meanwhile, the heads of large supermarket chains in France have made a voluntary agreement for all stores to employ energy-saving techniques, such as turning off electric signs at closing times, reducing light usage, and managing store temperatures, from October 15th this year. They will also cut lighting by half before opening time, and by 30 percent during “critical consumption periods”.

Additionally, they will “cut off air renewal at night” and “lower the temperature in outlets to 17C this autumn and winter, if requested by a regulatory authority”.

Recommendations – The government has urged individuals to adopt energy-saving practices – by switching off wifi routers when on holiday, turning off lights, unplugging electric appliances when not in use, and lowering the air-con.

France’s energy transition minister Agnes Pannier-Runacher has urged people to keep heating to a maximum of 19C and air con to a minimum of 26C at the height of summer.

Spain

Spain has introduced perhaps the most wide-ranging set of rules in its new energy-saving bill, which comes into force on August 10th.

Public buildings as well as shops, restaurants, cafés, supermarkets, transport hubs and cultural spaces must:

  • Set heating and cooling temperatures to limits of 19C and 27C respectively;
  • Install doors that automatically close by September 30th to prevent energy waste, as can happen with regular doors that are left open;
  • Lights in shop windows must be turned off by 10pm;
  • Posters must be put up to explain the energy saving measures in every building or establishment, and thermometers must be displayed to show the temperature and humidity of the room.

READ ALSO: Is it realistic for Spain to set the air con limit at 27C during summer?

Recommendations – the above rules do not apply to private homes, but it is recommended to follow the heating and cooling limits.

Meanwhile, working from home is recommended for large companies and public administration buildings to help “save on the displacement and thermal consumption of buildings”, Spain’s Minister for Ecological Transition Teresa Ribera said.

And have you thought about your outfit? Here’s Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez explaining why he’s ditching his tie to stay a little bit cooler.

Italy

Back in April the Italian government approved limits on the use of air conditioning in public offices and schools from May 1st, to save energy and wean itself off reliance on Russian gas imports.

At the time Ministers said that Italy would be able to end its reliance on Russian gas within 18 months, after previously giving a timeframe of at least two years.

Rules – In public buildings, energy use will be measured in individual rooms of each building – the temperature must not exceed 19C in winter and cannot be any lower than 27C in summer, with a margin of tolerance of two degrees – meaning the lowest allowed temperature is actually 25C.

Fines for non-compliance with the rules are said to range from €500 to €3,000. The measure does not currently apply to clinics, hospitals and nursing homes.

Italy has long had rules in place limiting the usage of heating in homes and public buildings during winter. Northern and mountainous areas are allowed to switch on the heat in October, while some parts of the south can’t turn up the dial until December.

Even then, there are limits on how long you’re allowed to keep the central heating on each day, ranging from six hours in the warmest parts of the country to 14 hours in chillier regions.

And there are rules on maximum temperatures – private homes, offices and schools should not be heated to more than 20C, with a 2C tolerance. Meanwhile factories and workshops should generally be kept at 18C.

Austria

The Austrian government has said it will work on measures to encourage energy saving among households and businesses while putting a cap on electricity prices.

The aim is to “support the Austrian population to ensure unaffordable energy supply for a certain basic need”, according to a government statement. 

The government didn’t give details on the price cap but said that conditions would be developed by the end of August.

Sweden

Sweden has announced no new measures in response to the energy crisis, but already has certain limits in place. 

Many Swedish apartment buildings and housing cooperatives have a strict maximum heating limit of 21C indoors and in some buildings radiators have a limiter on them so they cannot be turned too high.

In Denmark, too, the government has introduced no specific new measures.

Switzerland

In common with other countries, Switzerland is at risk of a gas shortage this winter and the government has warned that restrictions on consumption during the coldest months cannot be excluded.

Nearly half of its annual supply is of Russian origin. “We are not an island, so the war in Ukraine and the global energy crisis also affect Switzerland,” Energy Minister Simonetta Sommaruga said at the end of June. “In this context, there is no certainty about what awaits us.”

The possibility that Swiss households will have to turn down the thermostat this winter is very real. 

In the event of an actual shortage, “consumption restrictions may be ordered, for example restrictions on the heating of unoccupied buildings. The switching to biofuel could be imposed by ordinance”, Economy Minister Guy Parmelin has said.

If shortages persist, a quota system would be implemented – with households and essential services, such as hospitals, among the last to be affected.

But Parmelin insisted, “the role of the State is to guarantee a good supply of gas and electricity to the country. We want at all costs to avoid a disruption in supply, which would have a strong impact on businesses and  would then lead to an economic crisis”.

UK

Less reliant on Russian gas because of its own gas reserves, the UK is currently less worried about supply than price – soaring utility bills may force many households into poverty this winter, campaigners have warned.

Households in the UK will start receiving a discount worth a total £400 (€478) off their energy bills from October, the British government has said, with the support package rises to £1,200 (€1,430) for the poorest households.

A recent report by National Grid said there was little chance of the lights going out in the UK this winter – though experts have warned that a severe cold spell could prompt action, such as shutdowns of non-critical factory operations, to ensure homes can be heated.

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