The new security requirements will come into force from January 1 but gun shops will have five years to upgrade their security systems, the Federal Department of Justice and Police said in a statement released on Thursday.
Over the past 12 months, several arms shops have been the target of burglaries or attempted break-ins.
The new security requirements cover safety standards for doors and windows, while shops must also have video surveillance.
Gun shops will also have to keep certain weapons such as automatic firearms in a security cabinet with an alarm linked directly to the police or an alarm centre.
Guns are popular in Switzerland, which has the highest gun ownership rate of any European country.
In Switzerland, where shootings are extremely rare, the attachment to arms is rooted in the tradition of militiamen keeping their rifles at home.
Weapons are therefore widespread, though it it difficult to know how many are in civilian hands in the absence of a national register.
According to the Geneva-based Small Arms Survey research centre, in 2017 Swiss civilians possessed more than 2.3 million weapons — nearly three for every 10 people, putting Switzerland 16th in the world for the number of weapons per capita.
Gun laws in Switzerland are relatively tight, although politicians on the right side of the spectrum have continually called for the rules to be relaxed, in particular after attacks and terrorist incidents.