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Naturalisation: How well must I speak a Swiss language for citizenship?

Thinking of becoming a Swiss citizen? Here’s how good your German, Italian, French (or Romansh) needs to be to get that famous red passport.

A German for Dummies language book sits atop a desk next to a pen and a cup of coffee. Photo by Jan Antonin Kolar on Unsplash
A German for Dummies language book sits atop a desk next to a pen and a cup of coffee. Photo by Jan Antonin Kolar on Unsplash

For anyone wanting to obtain Swiss citizenship through naturalisation, you will need to demonstrate proficiency in one of Switzerland’s national languages. 

READ MORE: Would you pass Switzerland’s citizenship exam?

Switzerland has four official national languages: German, French, Italian and Romansh. 

Fortunately, you only need to be proficient in one of these languages.

English, while widely spoken in Switzerland, is not an official language of Switzerland and English proficiency will not grant you Swiss citizenship. 

Note: if you are going for residency, rather than citizenship, the language standards are different. Click the following link for more information. 

EXPLAINED: Everything you ned to know about Swiss language tests for residency

What are the language rules for becoming Swiss? 

Fortunately, Switzerland has relatively recently changed its language requirements, making them far less confusing to understand and navigate. 

Decent language skills have always been necessary for Swiss citizenship but requirements used to vary depending on the canton. 

READ MORE: Five Swiss German phrases to make you sound like a local

But under the 2018 changes, which came into effect on January 1st, 2019, there is now a uniform minimum level of language proficiency required on a federal basis. 

Candidates must demonstrate A2 level writing ability (elementary) and B1 (intermediate) spoken skills. This is the level set out in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

This must be done through an accredited test centre. The accreditation process is handled at a cantonal level. 

The new rules were designed to harmonise the language requirements for residency across Switzerland rather than the previous situation where different cantons had different rules.

Previously, there was no consistency in language testing, with many cantons in the French-language region making a judgment based on the candidate’s oral skills.

Cantons are free to set a higher bar if they wish, as Thurgau has done by requiring citizenship candidates to have B1-level written German and B2 (upper intermediate) spoken German. The rules are also stricter in St Gallen and Schwyz. 

The following table illustrates the level of Swiss language you need to speak for various permits, including for naturalisation. 

Image: Swiss State Secretariat for Migration

Image: Swiss State Secretariat for Migration

Which language must I speak?

Moving to Switzerland, it may appear you have three world languages to choose from, although by and large this is not the case. 

As the tests are done at a communal level, the language in the commune in question is the one you need to speak

Therefore, if you have flawless French and live in Schwyz, you need to improve your German in order to make sure you pass the test. 

While some Swiss cantons are bilingual, this is comparatively rare at a municipal level. 

A Swiss Federal Supreme Court case from 2022 held that a person is required to demonstrate language proficiency in the administrative language of the municipality in which they apply, even if they are a native speaker of a different Swiss language. 

In that case, a Cameroonian who arrived in Switzerland at the age of eight with French as her native tongue was required to demonstrate proficiency in German in order to be successfully naturalised in the German-speaking commune of Thun. 

Why does Switzerland want language proficiency? 

Most countries impose some form of language test for acquiring citizenship.

Switzerland, as a multi-lingual country, is relatively unique in that you can demonstrate this proficiency by speaking a variety of different languages. 

While it is certainly possible to get by speaking only English in some parts of Switzerland, speaking a local language is a way of demonstrating you are integrated in society. 

The Swiss government has referenced this directly, saying the goal is not only to ensure you have an accurate comprehension of the language, but that you can communicate with those around you as part of day-to-day life. 

“The ability to communicate was a key element in the formulation of the language requirements set in the ordinance. Furthermore, residence status should not depend on a person’s ability to speak accurately – this assumes a certain level of education – but to communicate in everyday situations, for example with work colleagues or with one’s children’s teachers”.

How do I prove my language credentials? 

Due to the 2018 changes, foreigners need to prove their language proficiency with an accredited institution from the following list, rather than at the discretion of each canton. 

Generally, a certificate from a registered language school showing you have achieved the necessary level will be required. 

What if I am from Germany, France or Italy? 

A large proportion of Switzerland’s residents come from countries where a Swiss language is spoken. 

Based on figures released before the pandemic, 14.9 percent of Switzerland’s foreign residents come from Italy, 14.3 percent from Germany and 6.3 percent from France. 

Fortunately, you are exempt from having to prove your language competency if your native language is one of the Swiss national languages.

READ ALSO: 18 interesting facts about Switzerland’s fourth language, Romansh

If you have done five years of compulsory schooling in Switzerland or if you have a secondary school leaving certificate or tertiary qualification completed in a Swiss national language, then you also don’t need to prove your language credentials. 

If you studied in Switzerland, you can demonstrate language proficiency through a high school Matura certificate, even if the language in question was studied as a foreign language

Are there any exceptions? 

Speaking the language is one of the clearest ways to illustrate integration – and Swiss immigration officials take the question of integration very seriously.

As we’ve discussed in our following report, people who speak a Swiss language perfectly have been knocked back for a variety of seemingly minor reasons, including not knowing the names of local restaurants or not liking hiking, with officials saying these were signs of insufficient integration.

READ MORE: The ten most surprising questions on Switzerland’s citizenship exam

The only exception is if you can provide evidence of why they cannot learn the language, for instance a medical certificate from a speech therapist, however it is still up to the canton to decide whether this is sufficient

A proposal from 2016 in the canton of Zug – the low-tax Swiss canton with the most millionaires per capita – sought to create an exception for people with over 20 million francs to get a residency permit, but it was rejected. 

Informally, some have argued that the super wealthy have found a way around the language requirements. 

According to the New York Times, one of Switzerland’s most famous residents – Tina Turner, who lives on Lake Zurich – doesn’t speak German, despite having traded her American passport for a Swiss one in 2013.

Unfortunately, anyone else hoping for a ‘Queen of Rock and Roll’ exception is likely to be disappointed. 

Member comments

  1. I think it is important to point out that is not about completing a language course but rather passing a test from Goethe or TELC, among others.

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Switzerland ranked ‘best country’ in the world

Switzerland has been placed in top spot in yet another international ranking. But does it deserve such a high score?

Switzerland ranked 'best country' in the world

In its annual ranking of 85 nations, US News & World Report has placed Switzerland in top position, based on 73 different criteria.

While it did not come up tops in all of the categories, Switzerland did sufficiently well in others to get an overall high score, as well as high scores in several individual categories.

There are some of them:

Open for Business (100 points out of 100)

This title may be somewhat misleading, as it could be taken to mean that shops and other businesses are open until late hours.

If this were the case, Switzerland wouldn’t get the maximum score; in fact, it would probably place toward the bottom of the ranking.

Instead, this category means ‘business friendly’— and that Switzerland certainly is.

As the report puts it, “The countries considered the most business-friendly are those that are perceived to best balance stability and expense. These market-oriented countries are a haven for capitalists and corporations”.

In other words, the government has created a good environment for businesses to thrive, by offering, for instance, tax incentives and a skilled labour force.

This is actually a good thing because when businesses do well, so does the entire economy.

The proof that Switzerland excels in this category is that it has “low unemployment, and one of the highest gross domestic products per capita in the world”, the report states.

“This helps explain why the country placed first on the list of nations perceived as a good place to headquarter a corporation, as well as scoring in the top five among best countries for a comfortable retirement, green living and to start a career”.

READ MORE: Switzerland ‘an island of bliss’ compared to US, chief economist says

Quality of Life (96.7)

This term could mean different things to different people. But as defined in the report, “beyond the essential ideas of broad access to food, housing, quality education, health care and employment, quality of life may also include intangibles such as job security, political stability, individual freedom and environmental quality”.

Switzerland certainly offers all four. Unemployment is low, which means there are plenty of job opportunities.

The country is politically stable from within, with well established democratic processes — such as referendums — providing security against abuses of power.

Freedom, including the right to ‘self-determination’, is a constitutional right.

And while ecological concerns related to global warming do exist, the Swiss are good at protecting the nature that surrounds them.

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Other quality-of-life categories that weight in Switzerland’s favour include safety, well-developed public education, and a top-notch public health system.

Switzerland has done well across all these categories, but this is no news to anyone who has been following such rankings: the country, or its individual cities, regularly figure among those boasting a high quality of life.

READ MORE: REVEALED: Which Swiss cities offer the best quality of life?

Social purpose (86.6)

This means the country cares about human and animal rights, the environment, gender equality, religious freedom, property rights, well-distributed political power, racial equity, climate goals, and social justice.

Switzerland does particularly well in some of these categories, and less so in others.

In terms of animal rights, for instance, the country’s legislation is among the toughest in the world: as an example, small domestic animals must be kept in pairs to ensure social interaction, and it is illegal to boil a live lobster.

Another category in which Switzerland succeeds possibly better than other nations is the distribution of political power — under Switzerland’s unique system of direct democracy, people, rather than politicians, hold and wield all the power.

READ MORE: How Switzerland’s direct democracy system works

You will find the overall rankings in this link.