The other sacked players were Javier Arizmendie, Vincent Bikana and Haris Seferovic, according to Swiss media reports.
The move came the day after the Swiss Football League (SFL) deducted a further four points from Xamax for breaches of licensing rules, while the club's players are still awaiting their salaries for November and December.
Besle, 28, was sacked after a meeting in the office of vice-president Islam Satujev, which he left in tears.
The Frenchman had played almost 200 league matches since joining Xamax from Lens in 2005 and was made club captain last summer.
Team spokesperson Raoul Savoy said that the three other players had been let go for sporting reasons.
Xamax have had several run-ins with the Swiss authorities since Chechen businessman Bulat Chagaev bought the club in May for an estimated 1.2 million Swiss francs ($1.3m).
On December 14th, the SFL docked Xamax four points for failing to provide financial details pertinent to the awarding of operating licences.
Xamax have four days to appeal against the punishment handed down on Tuesday.
On November 2nd, the SFL imposed a fine of 20,000 Swiss francs for failing to provide "information and financial documents" following Chagaev's takeover.
Swiss prosecutors charged the businessman with forgery on November 24th, amid media reports he allegedly submitted a falsified bank document to prove his solvency during a bankruptcy trial.