The company announced on Monday that the jobs could either be eliminated or transferred to other countries.
PMI said it has opened consultations with workers on the restructuring plan but added that it remained fully committed to its Swiss operations, which employ a total of 3,000 people.
“Any decision will be taken after thorough evaluation, but I believe a realignment of our global functions is necessary to ensure that we stay optimally equipped to service our markets and foster the growth of our business,” Kevin Click, the company’s senior vice president of human resources, said in a statement.
“We realize that this period of uncertainty will be extremely difficult for our employees, particularly those who may be regretfully impacted,” Click said.
“We are fully committed to support our people throughout this process."
Around 140 positions could be affected in Lausanne with the remainder in Neuchâtel, the company said.
Click noted the company has invested 700 million francs ($773 million) in Switzerland since 2008, including a new research and development centre in Neuchâtel, in addition to creating 400 jobs.
The company said the restructuring plans do not affect other PMI entities in Switzerland, such as the Swiss market affiliate Philip Morris SA, or its R&D centre and manufacturing plant in Neuchâtel.