Jamie Andrew, who had both feet and hands amputated in 1999, reached the top of Switzerland's famous peak along with two mountain guides on Thursday.
The 47-year-old claims to be the first quadruple amputee to achieve such a feat.
A passionate mountaineer from Scotland, Andrew lost his limbs to frostbite after becoming caught in a storm on an ascent of the north face of Les Droits in the French Alps in 1999.
Stranded for five days, he was finally rescued by helicopter but it was too late for his climbing partner and friend, Jamie Fisher, who died on the mountain.
Andrew's feet and hands were severely frostbitten and had to be amputated.
He returned to climbing the following year, ascending Ben Nevis, Britain's highest mountain.
Since then he has run the London marathon, climbed the Mönch in Switzerland and Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.
Speaking to BBC radio, Andrew said his ascent of the Matterhorn was five years in the planning.
He made the climb using custom-made prosthetics including arm prosthetics “like ski poles”, he said.
Andrew and his team completed their challenge on Thursday shortly before a storm hit that evening.