The alleged ‘jihadi tourist' appeared before Switzerland's federal criminal court in Bellinzona on Friday, the Swiss news agency SDA reported.
In December 2015, the woman, accompanied by her four-year-old child, attempted to travel to Syria via Greece and Turkey in order to join IS, the authorities allege.
Her intended destination was Raqqa, which was at the time an IS stronghold in Syria.
The woman was prevented from continuing her journey by the Greek authorities and was arrested at Zurich airport on her return to Switzerland in January 2016.
The Swiss attorney general's office filed an indictment against the Swiss national for offences under the federal law that bans terror groups including Isis.
According to the indictment, the woman radicalized herself through internet propaganda after converting to Islam in 2009.
It says the Swiss national believed it was the duty of all Muslims to support IS.
She said she rejected western values.
This is only the second case concerning a so-called ‘jihadi tourist' to go before Switzerland's federal criminal court.
The first prosecution of its kind took place in 2016, when a 26-year-old man was found guilty of attempting to travel to join Isis and given an 18-month suspended jail sentence.
Islamic State has been banned in Switzerland since 2014.