Ministry spokesman Bahram Ghasemi said a note of complaint was issued to the ambassador for Switzerland over the "inhuman and discriminatory" detention of Iranian citizen and Press TV reporter Marzieh Hashemi.
The Swiss embassy in Tehran handles US interests in the Islamic republic after the two countries broke off relations following the 1979 Islamic revolution.
"Her immediate and unconditional release was demanded" at the meeting with the ambassador, Ghasemi added.
US-born Hashemi, who works for Iran's English-language Press TV, was arrested on arrival at St Louis Lambert International Airport on January 13th, according to family and friends cited by Press TV.
Hashemi, a Muslim convert who changed her name from Melanie Franklin, had reportedly been visiting her ill brother and other family members.
A US court on Friday confirmed the arrest, saying her testimony was required over an unspecified case but that she was not accused of a crime.
At a hearing in Washington, a judge ordered the partial unsealing of an order on Hashemi.
The court said Hashemi was arrested on "a material arrest warrant" and would be let go after she gave testimony to a grand jury investigating unspecified "violations of US criminal law".
Iran's Foreign Minister Javad Zarif on Thursday described the detention as a "political action" by the United States that "tramples on freedom of speech" and demanded she be set free.
Zarif said that since Hashemi was married to an Iranian she is considered as an Iranian national and "it is our duty to defend our citizens".