Foreign nationals living in Switzerland are very diverse in terms of education, occupational situation, age, migration status, and country of origin, the report shows.
Not surprisingly, their language skills and social participation improve with their length of stay in Switzerland.
In addition, immigrants tend to quickly, although never fully, integrate into the labour market. However, households with a migration background have lower incomes and wealth than their native Swiss counterparts.
Here are some of the study’s other key findings:
Over a third of the population is connected to migration
The study makes a distinction among three categories of immigrants and their descendants.
The population with foreign citizenship comprises around 2.1 million people (25 percent of the whole population); people born abroad account for about 2.6 million (30 percent); and approximately 2.7 million people over the age of 15 (38 percent) have a migration background of some kind.
Gap is narrowing but differences remain
The gap in average income between people with and without a migration background decreases considerably as time goes by.
The higher unemployment rate among immigrants immediately after their arrival in Switzerland diminishes the longer they stay in the country.
While their labour market participation in the year of immigration is considerably lower than that of persons born in Switzerland, the gap closes over time, but without completely disappearing.
Households with a migration background have lower incomes and wealth
The study compared the income and wealth of households with and without a migration background in Switzerland and Germany.
In both countries, households with a migration background have a lower disposable income and less wealth.
Household size is an important factor: those with a migration background tend to be larger and share their income and wealth with more people than families with no migration background.
Additionally, households with a migration background are less likely to own their own home in Switzerland than in Germany.
There are major cantonal differences in access to citizenship
The study found cantonal differences in granting of citizenship and the factors influencing the authorities’ practice with regard to integration policy.
Cantons with a liberal political orientation are more likely to adopt an inclusive approach.
That’s because in cantons with a greater mix of people and a higher degree of urbanisation, the population is more open-minded and has a more positive attitude towards cultural diversity than in more conservative regions.
In March, The Local published an article which cited official studies demonstrating that big cities in Switzerland naturalise the highest number of foreigners.
For example, in Zürich, 17,000 foreigners were naturalised between 2011 and 2017 — the highest number in Switzerland.
Geneva followed with 9,760 naturalisations, Lausanne with 6,019, Basel with 4,975, and Winterthur with 3,368.
On the other hand, some regions have not granted citizenships to any foreigners in nearly 30 years.