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UKRAINE

OPINION: Criticism of Swiss refugee response lacks perspective

In the space of a month, Switzerland has registered almost as many asylum seekers from one single country – Ukraine – as it usually accepts in a year from all countries combined. How has the alpine nation responded to Europe’s largest refugee crisis since the Second World War?

Ukrainian refugees exit a plane chartered by a Swiss millionaire at Zurich Airport, on March 22, 2022. Photo: FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP
Ukrainian refugees exit a plane chartered by a Swiss millionaire at Zurich Airport, on March 22, 2022. Photo: FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

A massive adjustment is taking place. Ten days before Russia began its extensive invasion of Ukraine, the Swiss Secretariat for Migration (SEM) had estimated that Switzerland would see an intake of 16,500 new asylum seekers in the whole of 2022. 

But in the intervening weeks, the continent has changed, and 10 million people have fled their homes because of the war in Ukraine, 3.4 million of whom have left the country so far – most sheltered by neighbouring countries.

Switzerland registered 16,520 Ukrainian refugees up to 28 March.

The extraordinary situation has provoked an extraordinary response. Ukrainian refugees have all automatically been granted the right to remain in Switzerland for a year, so-called protection status ‘S’.

In addition, the refugees have been granted free travel on public transport until the end of May, free medical treatment and free mobile phone accounts. 

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On a community level, more than 28,000 Swiss households have so far come forward offering to host refugees, according to the Swiss Refugee Council. The placements are proceeding as quickly as possible through the cantonal authorities. 

Some perspective seems to be missing from the political commentary on the crisis. It must be remembered that Switzerland is by far not bearing the brunt of this crisis though it has much greater resources than the countries who are in that position.

The arrivals so far in Switzerland are a drop in the ocean compared to the numbers of refugees hosted in countries bordering Ukraine, particularly Poland and Moldova. 

Whatever the complaints are now, we also need to be aware that more refugees are coming. As the countries neighbouring Ukraine struggle to cope, more people will keep coming farther westwards, seeking stability and basic services. No upper limit has yet been placed on the Swiss intake by the SEM.  

Criticism of the Swiss response seems to focus on details rather than the big picture – with little awareness of historical precedent.

On the one hand, there are accusations that the special treatment being shown to Ukrainians is unfair. The co-president of the Social Democratic Party, for instance, took aim at the free transport offer. 

A young Ukrainian refugee boards a plane headed to Zurich from Krakow. Photo: FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

A young Ukrainian refugee boards a plane headed to Zurich from Krakow. Photo: FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

Writing on Facebook, Cédric Wermuth said he welcomed the offer of free public transport but found it problematic because the reasons given for the exceptional offer applied to almost everyone else going through the asylum process. 

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“Just because they unfortunately had to flee here from war or persecution from another place, they don’t have this privilege. That includes, for example, also Russian opposition figures,” Wermuth wrote. His remarks were widely reported. 

This criticism seems blind to the scale, timespan and geography of the Ukrainian situation. Ukrainian refugees only have to pass through two countries to reach Switzerland. They are coming anyway and preparations have to be made. The Swiss policy is in line with the EU response. 

The S permit decision has also been criticised for unfairness. The S permit is limited to one year but it can be extended. Permit S holders are allowed to take up employment, including self-employment. 

According to the SEM, “the granting of protection status S to Ukrainian refugees is intended to prevent the Swiss asylum system from becoming overstretched”. 

Some advocates in the asylum sector speak more openly of racism, for example Miriam Behrens, director of the Swiss Refugee Council. In an interview with Swiss Public Television, she said other asylum seekers could not help but compare their experience to that of the Ukrainians. 

“They see that people from other war zones have more rights. The first thing they think is: Could this be about skin colour? Or country of origin?” The top three countries of origin of asylum seekers in Switzerland over the past decade have been Eritrea (47,537 people since 2010), Afghanistan and Syria. 

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There are also teething problems in the provision of financial and other support to the new arrivals that have led to frustration on the part of some host families. Households are only entitled to receive a symbolic contribution towards their hospitality. Some may have not have realised this.

There is no doubt that a huge amount of goodwill is being shown to the Ukrainian refugees, both on an official and personal level. So how different is this to previous waves of refugees in the past?

Some 30,000 people found refuge in Switzerland during the 1992–1995 Bosnian war and a further 50,000 during the 1998–1999 Kosovo war.

But to find the best comparison, with the same concentrated time frame, warm welcome and political hue, you have to go back to the Hungarian Uprising in 1956 and the Prague Spring in 1968. These crises were also linked to the old animosity between Western Europe and the repressive regimes behind the then Iron Curtain.

In 1956, Switzerland accepted a contingent of 14,000 Hungarians out of an estimated total of 180,000 who left the country within a matter of days. They were greeted with open arms and chocolate. Switzerland accepted a contingent of 11,000 refugees again from Czechoslovakia in 1968 at the time of the Prague Spring. 

Apart from Ukrainians, most of the asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland over the past decade come from countries enduring long-standing conflict and repression. We can only hope that Ukraine will not gradually slip into the same category where sympathy and urgency inevitably fade away. 

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OPINION & ANALYSIS

OPINION: If foreigners think the Swiss are unfriendly who’s to blame?

There is a perception in Switzerland that Swiss natives and foreigners just don't really get on. Clare O'Dea looks at why there might be a lack of chemistry and where the blame may lie.

OPINION: If foreigners think the Swiss are unfriendly who's to blame?

I was once on a bus in Geneva, suffering from morning sickness on that particular day, on my way out to Cern for an interview. A man sitting across from me started to talk. Under the guise of striking up a friendly conversation, he kept asking me questions about myself. ‘Where do you live? Where are you going? Are you a student?’

It doesn’t happen to me anymore but young women will recognise this scenario. I felt cornered and it got the point where I had to tell him to stop quizzing me. ‘Typical Swiss,’ he snapped back at me. ‘Cold and unfriendly.’

It’s an easy accusation to throw around, based as it is on a well-known cliché. At the time I was not Swiss. I had only lived here for a few years having moved from Ireland, a nation famed for its friendliness. 

The extra irony is, I do chat to strangers on public transport, when it happens naturally and without an agenda. I’ve had interesting conversations in this way over the years. I became a Swiss citizen in 2015. Am I a friendly Swiss person or a friendly Irish person now? It shouldn’t matter. 

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But the reputation of the Swiss for coldness seems to have staying power. At the very least, the perception seems to be that there is a lack of chemistry between Swiss and foreigners in this country. So is that a fair and accurate assessment? 

When it comes to the romantic side of things. Swiss people marry foreigners in large numbers. In a given year, a quarter of Swiss brides and grooms choose foreign spouses. Presumably some chemistry is involved in those marriages.

My impression is that the main source for the idea of the Swiss being unfriendly is anecdotal. In my early years as an immigrant, I noticed that fellow foreigners enjoyed sharing anecdotes of encounters with unfriendly Swiss people. Integration can be a lonely and frustrating process beset with misunderstandings. But are these stories being emphasised because they confirm a stereotype or because Swiss unfriendliness is a widespread phenomenon? 

Hard facts are hard to come by in this subjective area. Some “expat” surveys back up the idea that it’s difficult to befriend the Swiss. But if someone defines themselves as an expat, does that not mean they are living somewhat apart from the local population?  

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There’s another stereotype, expat. A high-income foreigner living in Switzerland on a temporary basis, whose work life is English-speaking and multinational. The natives are just extras in the movie of their lives, a movie that will continue elsewhere. Is this the best group to be interpreting what the Swiss are truly like? Is this description fair and accurate? 

Of course there are many different types of foreigners and not enough surveys to cover them all. There are the people with Swiss partners, who have the advantage of tapping into their partner’s ready-made network, which usually means more fast-tracked integration.

There are foreigners born in Switzerland – one in four of the population – who grew up with the Swiss and probably have friends for life who are Swiss. How should their friendliness or lack of it be counted? 

Generally speaking, language fluency and time spent in Switzerland are probably the key determinants of whether the relationship between outsiders and the Swiss is successful. Not to forget personality! 

It also helps to put aside any pre-conceived notions about the Swiss when you come to live here. That’s easier said than done. The Swiss are the rich kid of Europe, somewhat aloof in their international relations, while domestic politics has its xenophobic moments. 

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But to view individual people you meet as embodying these characteristics can be a self-fulfilling prophecy. This is a very diverse country, in terms of language, class, politics, regional differences, and immigration background. 

Perhaps I should mention that I have found the Swiss warm, welcoming and kind. Not everyone, not everywhere, not always, but enough people to maintain my faith in Swiss humanity. Compared to the society I come from, they don’t feel social pressure to perform superficial friendliness. And that’s ok because different countries have different norms.    

The British-Swiss writer Diccon Bewes refers to the Swiss as being like coconuts, in that it’s hard to break through their outer shell, but once you do, you have a friend for life. 

Some things are universal. Two ingredients that have made it easier for me to establish friendships are regular contact and common ground. Times where people are thrown together and where nationality doesn’t matter.

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Maybe the issue is that many foreigners first encounter the Swiss through work or officialdom. But Swiss people are like Clark Kent, living double lives. They don’t reveal their true selves at work. Their true selves are in their passions. 

Hobbies are where it’s at. If you find the Swiss at play or following their passions, you will be able to connect with them because you will be like-minded to some extent.

Whether it’s sports, music or some commitment to the community, the Swiss love joining clubs and associations and organising stuff. Unlike work aperos, people don’t rush home after these gatherings. All you have to do is grab your little glass of white wine and join in.  

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